2X2L - double cross to hell

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Council on Foreign Relations Experiments in Fear

At 8:00 PM Eastern Standard Time, on the evening of October 30, 1938, the night before All Saints Day now generally celebrated as Halloween, an estimated six million Americans listened to the famous Orson Welles broadcast, WAR OF THE WORLDS, describing an invasion from Mars. An estimated one million responded with sustained credulity and fear. Thousands responded with sheer panic.

The broadcast was a psychological warfare experiment conducted by The Princeton Radio Project. The Rockefeller Foundation funded the project in the fall of 1937. An Office of Radio Research was set up with Paul F. Lazarsfeld as director, and Frank Stanton and Hadley Cantril as associate directors. Cantril used a special grant from the General Education Board to study the effects of the broadcast. Cantril published the study as a book titled "THE INVASION FROM MARS - A STUDY IN THE PSYCHOLOGY OF PANIC." It contains a complete script of the broadcast. The book is one of a series of studies sponsored by the Federal Radio Education Committee.1

WAR OF THE WORLDS, was broadcast by Mercury Theater on the Air, from a microphone in a New York studio of the Columbia Broadcasting System. Council on Foreign Relations member Frank Stanton was a CBS executive. Stanton would direct Radio Free Europe. Regarding the programs realism Cantril writes,

"The sheer dramatic excellence of the broadcast must not be overlooked. The unusual realism of the performance may be attributed to the fact that the early parts of the broadcast fell within the existing standards of judgment of the listeners..."

A few short weeks before this broadcast, millions of listeners had kept their radios tuned for the latest news from a Europe apparently about to go to war. They had learned to expect that musical programs, dramas, broadcasts of all kinds would be cut off in a serious emergency to inform or warn an eager and anxious public. A large proportion of listeners, particularly those in the lower income and educational brackets, have grown to rely more on the radio than on the newspapers for news...

On this particular night when the listener tuned to the Mercury Theater, he heard the music of "Ramon Raquello and his orchestra" coming from the "Meridian Room" in the "Park Plaza Hotel" of New York City. Soon after the first piece had begun an announcer broke in: "Ladies and gentlemen, we interrupt our program of dance music to bring you a special bulletin from the Intercontinental Radio News."

...This report brought the story of the first explosion on Mars. The music was resumed only to be followed by another break: "Ladies and gentlemen, following on the news given in our bulletin a moment ago, the Government Meteorological Bureau has requested the large observatories of the country to keep an astronomical watch..." This bulletin contains the information that a "huge flaming object, believed to be a meteorite, fell on a farm in the neighborhood of Grovers Mill, New Jersey." The swing band gets in 20 seconds more. Then the invasion continues uninterruptedly..."

The last announcement comes from New York City, the Announcer says,

"I'm speaking from the roof of Broadcasting Building, New York City. The bells you hear are ringing to warn the people to evacuate the city as the Martians approach. Estimated in last two hours three million people have moved out along the roads to the north Hutchison River Parkway still kept open for motor traffic. Avoid bridges to Long Island --hopelessly jammed. All communication with Jersey shore closed ten minutes ago. No more defenses. Our army wiped out -- artillery, air force, everything wiped out. This may the last broadcast. We'll stay here to the end -- People are holding service below us -- in the cathedral. (VOICES SINGING HYMN).

Now I look down the harbor. All manner of boats overloaded with fleeing population, pulling out from docks. (SOUND OF BOAT WHISTLES)

Streets are all jammed. Noise in crowds like New Year's Eve in city. Wait a minute -- Enemy now in sight above the Palisades. Five great machines. First one is crossing river. I can see it from here, wading the Hudson like a man wading through a brook -- A bulletin's handed to me -- Martian cylinders are falling all over the country. One outside Buffalo, one in Chicago, St. Louis -- seem to be timed and spaced. -- Now the first machine reaches the shore. He stands watching, looking over the city. His steel, cowlish head is even with the skyscrapers. He waits for the others. They rise like a line of new towers on the city's west side -- Now they're lifting their metal hands. This is the end now. Smoke comes out -- black smoke, drifting over the city. People in the streets see it now. They're running towards the East River -- thousands of them, dropping in like rats. Now the smokes spreading faster. It's reached Times Square. People trying to run away from it, but its no use. They're falling like flies. Now the smokes crossing Sixth Avenue -- Fifth Avenue -- 100 yards away -- it's 50 feet --"

The announcer breaks off, and a field artillery radio operator is heard,

"2X2L calling CQ...

2X2L calling CQ...

2X2L calling CQ...New York

Isn't there anyone on the air?

Isn't there anyone...

2x2L_______ (MIDDLE BREAK)"

XX (Roman Numeral 20), X-2, or 2-X are espionage code names for a double-cross. The fictitious call letters can be interpreted by insiders to mean DOUBLE-CROSS [2X] TO HELL [2L].

Hadley Cantril was born in Hyrum Utah, 16 of June 1906. He graduated Dartmouth College with a B. S. in psychology in 1928. He studied in Munich and Berlin (1929-1930). He received a Ph. D. in psychology from Harvard in 1931. In 1949 Cantril received a LL. D from Washington and Lee University. Cantril taught sociology at Dartmouth College (1931-32), and psychology at Harvard (1932-1935), and Columbia University (1935-36). In 1936 Cantril joined the Princeton psychology department. He remained a member of the department until his death in 1969. In 1950 Cantril authored a book called Tensions that Cause Wars (1950).2

In 1935 George Gallup, Elmo Roper and Archibald Crossley, were studying opinion polling as a tool to help social scientists and psychologists learn about peoples likes and dislikes. Gallup's and Roper's surveys appeared in Fortune magazine. After the war Truman would choose the Director of Fortune magazine, CFR member John Kenneth Gailbraith, to direct European Economic Security Policy. Roper would become deputy Director for the Office of Strategic Services. The OSS Psychological Warfare Division staff included Council on Foreign Relations members Douglass Cater (Aspen Institute), W. Phillips Davison (RAND and Columbia), William Langer (Stanford University), and William S. Paley (CBS).3

Gallup's, Roper's and Crossley's work interested people in government, aspiring politicians, and market researchers. Gallup, Roper, and Crossley were not members of the academic fraternity. Established Social Scientists belittled their work. However, the studies interested Cantril. One of Cantril's earliest articles, The Social Psychology of Everyday Life (1934) contained a plea for social psychologists to devote more attention to devising new techniques to study on-going problems. 4

Lester Markel, Sunday Editor of the New York Times, asked Cantril to write some articles about "scientific" polling in connection with the presidential campaign of 1936. Cantril went to Princeton to talk with George Gallup. Gallup was flattered and offered Cantril the use of his facilities at Princeton to to conduct the research. 5

In 1936 Cantril and DeWitt Poole founded a quarterly publication called Public Opinion Quarterly. Harwood Childs was editor, Cantril was associate editor. Poole was a State Department expert in anti-communist propaganda. Poole became chief of the Foreign Nationalities Branch of the Office of Strategic Services. Poole directed OSS efforts to recruit agents from immigrant communities. The agents spied on their neighbors and analyzed foreign language publications.6

The Public Opinion Quarterly board of editors included veteran psychological warfare experts Harold Lasswell, Paul Lazarsfeld and Frank Stanton. DeWitt Poole, would become president of the National Committee for a Free Europe, one of the CIA's largest single propaganda efforts. CFR member Stanton directed the Free Europe Fund, a CIA proprietary corporation, that laundered the money for Poole's National Committee psycho-political operations.7

Today the Advisory Committee on Communication at Columbia University, sponsors and publishes the Quarterly -- the organ of Columbia University's American Association for Public Opinion Research. 8 In 1984 CFR member Frederick T. C. Yu, was on the Advisory Committee on Communication, and CFR member Daniel Yankelovich was on the Editorial Board of The Public Opinion Quarterly.

The American Association For Public Opinion Research was Founded in 1947. Its address is a post office box in Ann Arbor Michigan. In 1993 the organization had 1450 members and an annual budget of $170,000. It consists of six regional groups. It's members are described as individuals interested in the methods and applications of public opinion and social research. It still publishes the Public Opinion Quarterly. 9

Cantril's published his research on Gallup's techniques in early issues of the Public Opinion Quarterly . The articles described how to better understand why people of various backgrounds, interests, loyalties, and information levels held certain opinions. And how to use this information to effectively gear research concerned with psychological and political dynamics of people, into United States Government operation to achieve policy aims (i.e., how to manipulate people to get them to do what you want them to do).10

In 1940 the Rockefeller foundation funded Cantril establishment of the Office of Public Opinion Research. It was housed in the attic of Princeton Universities Palmer physics building. Its purposes were"(1) to learn and study public opinion techniques systematically; (2) to gain insights into the psychological aspects of public opinion, how and why it changes, what motivates large segments of the public; (3) to build up an archive of public opinion data for the use of qualified scholars; and (4) to begin to follow the course of American public opinion during the war that had already started in Europe... " The Office of Public Opinion Research also analyzed the effectiveness of Office of Strategic Service psycho-political operations.11

OSS deputy director Elmo Roper established a similar research center at Williams College. Dr. Philip K. Hastings, one of Cantril's former students, directed the Roper Center. The Roper Center received all of the Office of Public Opinion Research centers files, to help get them started.12

Cantril coined a term for this work -- policy research. Cantril tells us, "Most relevant to the story of policy research are the efforts begun in 1940 by the Office of Public Opinion Research to utilize and adapt survey methods as the European war progressed and the United States became increasingly involved. This research dealt with three kinds of problems: (1) devising questions that would help us to understand more clearly what the American people felt the United States should do vis-à-vis the war in Europe and what differences of opinion there were in various population groups; (2) formulating "trend" questions that could be repeated, either at regular intervals or as events dictated; and (3) testing the reliability of small samples. During 1940 and 1941, the Office of Public Opinion Research obtained all data through the American Institute of Public Opinion at cost... "13

On September 12, 1939, the Council on Foreign Relations began to take control of the Department of State. On that day Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Editor of Foreign Affairs, and Walter H. Mallory, Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, paid a visit to the State Department. The Council proposed forming groups of experts to proceed with research in the general areas of Security, Armament, Economic, Political, and Territorial problems. The State Department accepted the proposal. The project (1939-1945) was called Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies. Hamilton Fish Armstrong was Executive director.14

In February 1941 the CFR officially became part of the State Department. The Department of State established the Division of Special Research. It was organized just like the Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies project. It was divided into Economic, Political, Territorial, and Security Sections. The Research Secretaries serving with the Council groups were hired by the State Department to work in the new division. These men also were permitted to continue serving as Research Secretaries to their respective Council groups. Leo Pasvolsky was appointed Director of Research.15

In 1942 the relationship between the Department of State and the Council on Foreign Relations strengthened again. The Department organized an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies. The Chairman was Secretary Cordell Hull, the vice chairman, Under Secretary Sumner Wells, Dr. Leo Pasvolsky ( director of the Division of Special Research) was appointed Executive Officer. Several experts were brought in from outside the Department. The outside experts were Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies members; Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin V. Cohen, Norman H. Davis, and James T. Shotwell.16

In total there were 362 meetings of the War and Peace Studies groups. The meetings were held at Council on Foreign Relations headquarters -- the Harold Pratt house, Fifty-Eight East Sixty-Eighth Street, New York City. The Council's wartime work was confidential.17

The name Pratt is found in use as a byname in 11th century England. Pratt was the English nickname for a cunning trickster. Pratt comes from the Old English word "proett" meaning trick. Pratt is the family name of the Marquesses and Earls Camden. They are descended from John Pratt (d. 1573) of Devonshire. The first Earl, Sir Charles Pratt (1714-94), was a childhood friend of William Pitt (1708-1778) the 1st Earl of Chatham. England's Royal Institute of International Affairs Headquarters is Chatham House, 10 St. James' Square, London.

In June of 1940, William Stephenson, of British Intelligence, was setting up the British Security Coordination group in the United States. Franklin Delano Roosevelt was preparing to send an "unofficial observer" to London. The President selected a man he had known for more than thirty years, William J. Donovan. Stephenson's mission included influencing high ranking Government Officials to bring the US into the war. Joseph P. Kennedy was the US ambassador in London. Kennedy had been advising the President against American involvement in the war. William Stephenson was pleased when the President's chose Donovan for the mission.18

Donovan attended Columbia Law School with FDR. Donovan was a World War I Medal of Honor winner. In 1929 Donovan was a Wall Street lawyer. In 1935 Donovan went to Rome, Egypt and Ethiopia for the War Department to observe the Italian campaign against Ethiopia. In 1937 Donovan attended maneuvers of the German army and inspected their tanks and artillery. In 1938 Donovan toured Czechoslovakia, the Balkans, and Italy and visited the battlefields of the Spanish civil war.19

In 1941 a new agency was created, the Office of Coordinator of Information. Donovan ran it. The agency pooled information gathered by all the Intelligence Services and used the information for psychological warfare purposes. The talents of psychoanalysts across the country were mobilized to study domestic morale, and psychological warfare techniques on morale. The study was released as a top secret psychological report in 1943. It included a study of Adolph Hitler and his influence on the German people. The psychologist leading the study was Dr. Walter Langer. Walter's brother William helped to evaluate Hitler.20

CFR member William L. Langer was OSS branch chief for Research and Analysis. He worked with CFR member William H. Jackson. Their OSS research included "indirect assessment.." "Indirect assessment" was a way of evaluating a man's personality or state of mind without direct interview by a psychologist. William Langer used the technique to produce a psychological profile of Hitler, as part of Donovan's Top Secret OSS study.21

William L. Langer was a key figure in the intelligence community. William Langer, Allen W. Dulles, and Arthur Sweetser were members of the Council on Foreign Relations Peace and Aims Group. Arthur Sweetser, became the Deputy director of the Office of War Information. Sweetser and Langer also worked together as members of the Political Group with John Foster Dulles, Allan's brother. General Donovan and Allen Dulles made a career of trying to have the Director of Central Intelligence assigned to the Office of the President.22

In his early career William Langer was a fellow at the Center for Advance Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford. In World War I Langer rose from private to sergeant, and participated in the St. Mihiel and Argonne engagements. Langer's first significant book was "The Diplomacy of Imperialism (1935)." Langer was A member of the Board of Analysts, Office of Coordinator of Information (1941-42), chief of OSS Research and Analysis Branch (1942-1945), special assistant for intelligence analysis to the Secretary of State (1946), and assistant director of the CIA (1950-52). After 1952 Langer served as a consultant to the CIA. In his presidential address to the American Historical Association (1957) Langer emphasized the need for deeper study and more extensive reference by historians to the teachings of modern psychology.23

William L. Langer was one of ten editorial sponsors of the American Edition of MEIN KAMPF (1939). His view was that Hitler's MEIN KAMPF was an extraordinary medley of amateur politics and amazing insights into international problems and possibilities, and that Hitler "showed reckless courage in realizing the German dreams, nightmarish as some of them were." 24

George N. Shuster was another MEIN KAMPF editorial sponsor. Like Langer, Shuster was a Council on Foreign Relations Peace and Aims Group member. Shuster was a journalist. He served in France as a sergeant in Army Intelligence in World War I. After the war he was in the army of occupation in Germany. Shuster admired the German culture and sympathized with Germany's economic problems. In his book "The Germans (1932)," he glibly dismissed the "ideas" of Adolf Hitler as "no more commendable for wisdom or practicableness than are the notions of the average United States Senator." Shuster's views towards Hitler changed. In 1934 Shuster denounced the Nazi's assaults on individual and religious freedom. During World War II Shuster served on the Enemy Alien Board. When the war began, Secretary of War Henry Stimson ordered an "evacuation" of all Japanese, alien and American alike, from the coastal regions of California. CFR member Stimson remarked that the evacuation made an awful hole in the constitution but he had to do it on the grounds of safety of the nation and out of military necessity. The Japanese, alien and American alike, were "rationalized" into concentration camps. Stimson didn't "rationalize" Germans, alien and American alike into concentration camps. Did the Japanese American "evacuation" recommendation come from the Enemy Alien Board?25

MEIN KAMPF's editorial preface warns,"... MEIN KAMPF is a propagandistic essay by a violent partisan. As such it often warps historical truth and sometimes ignores it completely. We have, therefore, felt it our duty to accompany the text with factual information which constitutes an extensive critique of the original. No American would like to assume responsibility for giving the public a text which, if not tested in the light of diligent inquiry, might convey the impression that Hitler was writing history rather than propaganda.. "26

MEIN KAMPF's editorial introduction informs us historical truth was ignored completely for over 14 years; "Until now the only version of MEIN KAMPF in English has been a condensation of the complete book, published in 1933 [under the title MY BATTLE, prepared by E.T.S. Dugdale in England], containing less than half the total text...There are undoubtedly passages of great importance which now appear in English for the first time. For example, Chapter V, of the condensed version left out the whole of what Hitler describes as his wartime reflections on propaganda and on methods for fighting Marxism. We have marked at various points in the text the important new material. Furthermore, any abridgement must necessarily fail, in proportion to the degree of its condensation, to give the full flavor of the author's mind. Even the repetitions have their significance in conveying a sense of the character behind them. MEIN KAMPF is, above all, a book of feeling...The translation here offered is from the first German edition - the two volumes respectively of 1925 and 1927, which are now quite difficult to obtain..." 27

The National Socialist German Worker's party was founded on November 9, 1919. Hitler writes in the Conclusion to MEIN KAMPF, "On November 9, 1923, in the fourth year of its existence, the National Socialist German Worker's Party was dissolved and forbidden throughout the entire territory of the Reich. Today, in November of 1926, it stands again before us, free through the whole Reich, stronger and internally more stable than ever before." The German people recognized the evil of Hitler and tried to do something about it.28

Were World War I British and American intelligence agents left in Germany as part of an Institute of International Affairs plan to cause a second World War? Did CFR intelligence agents help bring Hitler to power to create an enemy the American people could hate, loath and fight? Were CFR members Shuster (who wrote about Hitler in 1932), and Langer (who worked on a psychological profile of Hitler), and CFR insider Hadley Cantril (who studied in Munich and Berlin from 1929-1930), three of those intelligence agents?

MEIN KAMPF was published in 1925. Why wasn't a translation made available to the English speaking people until 1939? Was this information withheld for 14 years so the German's wouldn't receive support from other nations and Hitler could take power? Why weren't covert-operations carried out to prevent Hitler's rise to power? Did the Office of Strategic Services put up funds for getting MEIN KAMPF, translated, published and marketed in the United States? Was MEIN KAMPF released in 1939 to help set the stage for ensuring America's entry into the war?

Dumbarton Oaks, in Georgetown, is famous for being the site of the 1944 conference that lead to the establishment of the United Nations. Present at the Dumbarton Oaks conference were many members of the Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies. Among those who had leading roles on many of the Committees and Commissions were, George N. Shuster, William L. Langer, Arthur Sweetser, Hamilton Fish Armstrong, John Foster Dulles, Grayson Kirk, Dwight E. Lee, Isaiah Bowman, David N. Rowe, Winfield W. Riefler, Carter Goodrich, Calvin B. Hoover, Owen Lattimore, and Frank R. McCoy. Many of these men attended the conference as members of or advisors to the State Department.29

Forty-nine days later the Council on Foreign Relations, Institutes of International Affairs, and Institutes of Pacific Relations achieved the aim they failed to achieve a quarter of a century before. At noon on 9 October 1944 the text of the proposals the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and China agreed upon were issued simultaneously in Washington, London, Moscow, and Chungking. The machinery to create one world order became a reality. Instead of being called the League of Nations, the organization was called the United Nations. This time the American people weren't given the chance to say no. Today American soldiers are part of a world-wide police force, forced to fight in times of peace, wearing non- American uniforms, under the command of Foreign officers. Their commander and chief is a draft dodging adulterous Council on Foreign Relations member; about to sell US Nuclear Technology to China's president, Institute of Pacific Relations member Jiang Zemin, 'Butcher of Beijing;' while keeping America in a state of perpetual National Security due to the threat of nuclear terrorism.

Sometime in 1942 the Office of Coordinator of Information was reorganized into two independent agencies -- the Office of Strategic Services and the Office of War Information (OWI). Donovan became the head of the newly created Office of Strategic Services. William Stephenson was head of the British Intelligence counterpart. The psychological warfare study was moved into the domain of the Office of War Information. 30

In UNWRITTEN TREATY, James P. Warburg writes,

"This book is dedicated to the men and women of OWI, who served at home and abroad on the far-flung psychological battlefronts of World War II, and whose skill and devotion created the 'Voice of America'."

Warburg explains,

"Psychological Warfare against a declared or undeclared enemy is probably as old as human history. It consists of two basic elements - the threat, or appeal to fear - and the bribe, or appeal to greed...

When the earliest savage raised his fist against a neighbor, he was using the psychological weapon of the threat. When he baited a trap, he was exploiting the appeal to greed. Bluff, bribery and deception have played a part in every human struggle throughout history, but it remained for our generation to develop psychological warfare as a means of systematic nationalistic aggression.

Psychological warfare aims at the undermining of a people's confidence in its cause, its strength, its leaders and itself, and at the destruction of its determination to fight for its cause or even for its life.

This combination of confidence and determination we call morale. When a nation's morale is destroyed, it commits suicide - as did Austria - or else it submits to conquest after feeble and disorganized resistance - as did France. In any case, it reaches a state of mind in which resistance seems hopeless and surrender less of an evil than endurance of armed conflict...

Psychological warfare against an enemy nation seeks to paralyze the will of that nation by spreading confusion, by alternating excessive hope and excessive fear, by exploiting every cleavage and adding fuel to every prejudice. Its chief weapon is propaganda - that is the dissemination of ideas. But propaganda, to be effective, must be based upon full and carefully analyzed intelligence concerning the enemy, and must be coordinated with espionage, fifth column activity and actual sabotage...

All these assignments are carried out by the implantation of carefully selected ideas and concepts. These ideas and concepts are neither necessarily true nor necessarily false. In fact, whether they are true or false makes no difference whatsoever, so long as they successfully serve to create the desired state of mind. It follows that there is no validity whatsoever to the widely held belief that propaganda consists by definition of spreading of lies. Truth and falsehood make no difference in themselves. There is equally little justification for the belief that the propaganda of 'decent,' democratic nations should be 'the truth and nothing but the truth.'...

It cannot be stated with sufficient emphasis that information is one thing - propaganda quite another.

The purpose of spreading information is to promote the functioning of man's reason.

The purpose of propaganda is to mobilize certain of man's emotions in such a way that they will dominate his reason...

The function of an information agency is to disseminate truth - to a make available fact and opinion, each carefully labeled and separated from the other.The aim of an information agency is to enable as many people as possible to form their own individual judgments on the basis of relevant fact and authoritative opinion.

The function of a propaganda agency is almost the exact opposite: it is not to inform, but to persuade. In order to persuade it must disseminate only such fact, such opinion, and such fiction masquerading as fact as will serve to make people act, or fail to act in the desired way."31

The Office of Coordinator of Information, and the Office of War Information weren't information agencies they were propaganda agencies. The Office of War Information extended contracts for communications research to Paul Lazarsfeld, Hadley Cantril, and Council on Foreign Relations member Frank Stanton. The famous Orson Welles WAR OF THE WORLDS was an experiment in psychological warfare. The American public became unwitting subjects in an experiment to study mass behavior to try to determine the factors of personality, experience, and circumstance that made for various degrees of suggestibility under the impact of fear. The experiment in terror was planned , coordinated, and carried out by Council on Foreign Relations members and insiders. Isn't an experiment of this nature immoral and illegal?

Adolph Hitler, and his propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels warped History by ignoring it completely, and stressing favorable and unfavorable truths to cause tension and hate between different groups of people. Goebbels' work fascinated CFR member Edward R. Murrow. The Rockefeller Foundation funded Murrow to perform a systematic analysis of Nazi radio propaganda techniques and the political use of radio. 32

Murrow, with help from Cantril and Lloyd Free, began the project at Princeton in 1940. The Princeton Listening Center was set up in an old house on Alexander Street, belonging to Princeton's Institute of Advanced Study (IASP). IASP was a reasonable copy of the Royal Institute of International Affairs chief Oxford headquarters, All Souls College. CFR member Abraham Flexner of Rockefeller's General Education Board and foundation administrator, organized it from plans drawn by Tom Jones, one of the Royal Institute of International Affairs most active intriguers and foundations administrators.33

This project resulted in a world wide monitoring and broadcasting Government agency called the Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service (FBIS). FBIS was a Psychological Warfare machine. FBIS became the United States Information Agency (USIA). The USIA was established to achieve US foreign policy by influencing public attitude at home and abroad using psycho-political policy strategies. The USIA Office of Research and reference service prepares data on psychological factors and propaganda problems considered by the Policy Planning Board in formulating psycho-political information policies for the National Security Council. Murrow would subsequently be named head of the USIA. Murrow became the Propaganda minister for the US -- America's Joseph Goebbels. 34

Was Hitler's rise to power a psycho-political operation planned and coordinated by members of the Council on Foreign Relations, Institutes of International Affairs, and Institutes of Pacific Relations? Was Hitler's rise to power another Double Cross To Hell -- another Council on Foreign Relations experiment in fear. Isn't that treason?

People's actions are strongly influenced by their knowledge base. People act on their beliefs. You can manipulate a person's actions by corrupting their knowledge base; by warping historical truth; or ignoring it completely. Knowledge can make for independence if it helps people meet their world more confidently and realistically. Those who have wanted others to remain dependent have always recognized this fact and have opposed the spread of knowledge. They include those who felt the Bible must not be read by the people; those who made laws against teaching slaves to read and write; and those who kept the plans of a monster like Hitler a secret for more than 14 years.

Isn't it time to investigate the Council on Foreign Relations, the Institutes of International Affairs, and the Institutes of Pacific Relations?

roundtable

[1] Cantril, Hadley with Assistance of Hazel Gaudet and Herta Herzog, The Invasion From Mars - A Study in Panic, Princeton University Press, 1940, 3rd Printing 1952, pg v

[2] Who's Who, 1967, pgs 333-334 - - Cantril authored; The Psychology of Radio (1935 co-author Gordon Allport), The Invasion from Mars (1941); The Psychology of Social Movements, (1941), Gauging Public Opinion (1944), Psychology of Ego-Involvements ( with M. Sherif, 1947), Understanding Man's Social Behavior (1947), Tensions that Cause Wars (1950), The "Why" of Man's Experience (1950), How Nations See Each Other (with William Buchanan, 1953), The Politics of Despair ( with C. H. Bumstead, 1958), Reflections on the Human Venture (1960), Soviet Leaders and Mastery Over Man, (1960); Human Nature and Political Systems (1961), The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research (1967).

[3] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 22-25

[4] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 22-25

[5] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 22-25

[6] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 24; Childs, Harwood, "The First Editor Looks Back," Public Opinion Quarterly, 21, no. 1 (Spring 1957) pgs 7-13; Brown, Anthony Cave ed., Secret War Report of the OSS, Berkeley, NY, 1976, Chapt. 2

[7] Childs, Harwood, "The First Editor Looks Back," Public Opinion Quarterly, 21, no. 1 (Spring 1957) pgs 7; US General Accounting Office, US Government Monies Provided to Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty report no. 173239, May 25, 1972, p. 79

[8] American Association For Public Opinion Research, Edited by Philip Meyer and Mary A. Spaeth, The Public Opinion Quarterly Index 1937-1982, Title Page, 1984

[9] Deborah M. Burek, Editor, Encyclopedia of Associations, Volume I Part 2, National Organizations of the U.S., 27th Edition, pg 1866 entry 16050, 1993

[10] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg viii

[11] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 22-25

[12] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 166

[13] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 22-25

[14] The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 2-3 Appendix A (pgs. 19-24) lists the personnel and dates of service of the War and Peace Studies group members as: Steering Committee Officer -- Norman H. Davis, Chairman (12/39-4/44); Isaiah Bowman, (12/39 (made chairman)-3/45); Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Vice Chairman, (12/39-9/45); Walter H. Mallory, Secretary (12/39-9/45); Paul F. Jones,Administrative Secretary, (1/40-11/40); Francis P. Miller, Administrative Secretary, (12/40-02/42); Dwight E. Lee,,Administrative Secretary, (09/42-09/43); Julius W. Pratt,,Administrative Secretary, (09/43-09/44); Richard C. Snyder, Administrative Secretary, (10/44-02/45); William Edwin Diez, Administrative Secretary, (03/45-09/45); Steering Committee Members -- Hanson W. Baldwin (07/40-09/45), Isaiah Bowman (12/39-Chairman 03/45); Allen W. Dulles (12/39-12/43); Carter Goodrich (08/42-09/45); Alvin H. Hansen (12/39-09/45); Whitney H. Shepardson, (12/39-06/42); Jacob Viner, (12/39-09/45); Edward P. Warner, (01/44-09/45); Henry M. Wriston, (06/42-09/45); Security And Armaments Group Rapporteurs Allen W. Dulles, Rapporteur (02/40-06/40) & Joint Rapporteur (07/40-12/43); Hanson W. Baldwin, Joint Rapporteur (07/40-09/45); Edward P. Warner,Joint Rapporteur (01/44-09/45); Security And Armaments Group Research Secretaries -- William M. Franklin (02/40-05/41); Grayson Kirk (06/41-09/45); Security And Armaments Group Members -- Brig. General Thomas J. Betts (07/40-12/43); Maj. Gen. Clayton Bissell (01/44-0945); Rear Ad. Ralph Davison (07/41-12/43); Edward M. Earle (03/45-09/45); Maj. George Fielding Eliot (02/41-09/45); Joseph C. Green (11/43-09/45); Brig. Gen. Haywood S. Hansell (07/41-07/42); Stacy May (07/40-02/45); Maj Gen. Frank R. McCoy(04/40-09/45); Col. James F. Olive (02/43-02/44); Adm William V. Pratt,Ret. (04/41-02/45); David N. Rowe (03/45-09/45); Capt. Richard W. Ruble (11/43-05/45); Harold F. Sheets (07/42-09/45); Harold Sprout (02/44-09/45); Adm. William H. Standley, Ret. (02/40-11/40); Maj. Gen. George V. Strong (07/44-09/45); Edward P. Warner(02/40-11/44); Brig. Gen. John Weckerling (01/44-09/45); Hugh R. Wilson (02/41-11/42); Theodore P. Wright (02/41-09/45); Economic and Financial Group Rapporteurs Alvin H. Hansen, Joint Rapporteur (02/40-09/45), Jacob Viner, Joint Rapporteur (02/40-09/45); Economic and Financial Group Research Secretaries Arthur R. Upgren (02/40-07/40); William Diebold Jr. (08/40-09/43); Arthur D. Gayer (10/43-09/45); Economic and Financial Group Members -- Percy W. Bidwell (02/40-09/45); Edwin F. Chinlund (11/43-09/45); Benjamin V. Cohen (09/41-09/45); Lauchlin Currie (02/43-09/45); Ralph E. Flanders (07/42-11/40); Heman Greenwood (03/45-09/45); Leon Fraser (02/40-11(40); Calvin B. Hoover (01/44-09/45); Winfield W. Riefler (02/40-03/42); William H. Schubart (07/42-12/44); Harold F. Sheets (02/40-05/42); Allan Sproul (02/41-12/43); Eugene Staley (02/40-09/45); Arthur R. Upgren (07/40-09/45); Jacob Viner (02/40-09/45); John H. Williams (02/40-11/40); Political Group Rapporteurs Whitney H. Shepardson (02/40-06/42); Henry M Wriston & Carter Goodrich Joint-Rapporteurs (08/42-09/45); Political Group Research Scientists Walter Langsam (02/40-02/41); Walter R. Sharp (02/41-09/45); Political Group Members Frank Altschul (03/45-09/45); Hamilton Fish Armstrong (02/40-09/45); James P. Baxter III (11/43-02/45); Charles W. Cole (03/45-09/45); John Foster Dulles (02/40-09/40); Maj. George Fielding Eliot (02/40-09/45); Thomas K. Finletter (03/45-09/45); Carter Goodrich (09/41-became Joint Rapporteur 08/42); William Langer ( 03/45-09/45); Owen Lattimore (03/45-09/45); Dwight E. Lee (03/45-09/45); Francis P. Miller (05/40-05/43); Philip E. Mosely (09/42-02/45); Lindsay Rodgers (02/41-09/45); David N. Rowe (11/43-02/45); James T Shotwell (02/40-02/43); Arthur Sweetser (02/41-09/45); Payson S. Wild (03/43-09/45); Henry M. Wriston (05/40-became Rapporteur 07/42); Territorial Group Rapporteur Isaiah Bowman (02/40-02/45); Territorial Group Research Secretaries Philip E. Mosely (03/40-09/41 & 08/42-02/45); William P. Maddox (09/41-06/42); Territorial Group Members Hamilton Fish Armstrong (02/40-02/45); H. Foster Bain (02/44-02/45); Charles H. Behre, Jr., (06/42-02/45); Charles W. Cole (05/42-02/45); John C. Cooper, Jr., (02/40-11/40); Rupert Emerson (05/43-02/45); A. Whitney Griswold (09/41-01/42); John Gunther (02/41-08/41); Bruce C. Hopper (02/40-02/45); Owen Lattimore (04/40-02/45); Frank W. Notestein (11/43-02/45); Walter H. Voskuil (09/43-02/45); William L. Westermann (02/40-02/45); Peace and Aims Group Chairman Hamilton Fish Armstrong (06/41-02/45); Peace and Aims Group Research Secretaries Philip E. Mosely (06/41-09/41); Mose L. Harvey (11/41-05/42); Dwight E. Lee (09/42-02/45); Peace and Aims Group Members Jay Allen (11/41-09/42); Frank Altschu (06/41-02/45); Percy W. Bidwell (06/41-02/45); Crane Brinton (09/42-12/42); Allen W. Dulles (06/41-02/45); Frank D. Graham (10/43-02/45); John Gunther (06/41-11/45); Bruce C. Hopper (06/41-02/45); Tracy B. Kittredge (06/41-04/42); William L. Langer (06/41-02/45); James G. McDonald (06/41-02/45); Philip E. Mosely (09/41-02/45); Winfield W. Riefler (06/41-02/45); Lindsay Rodgers (06/41-02/45); Whitney H. Shepardson (06/41-02/45); William L. Shirer (10/43-02/45); George N. Shuster (06/41-02/45); Oscar C. Stine (06/41-02/45); Arthur Sweetser (09/42-02/45); Max W. Thornburg (06/41-11/41); Jacob Viner (10/42-03/43); John K. Wright (11/42-02/45).

[15] The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 6

[16] The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 6

[17] The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 6

[18] George J.A. O'Toole, Honorable Treachery, A History of US Intelligence, Espionage, and Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA, A Morgan Entrekin Book The Atlantic Monthly Press, New York (1991) pgs 355-357; H. C. Allen Great Britain and the United States: A History of Anglo-American Relations (1783-1952) pg. 787; Thomas F. Troy, Donovan and the CIA: A History of the Establishment of the Central Intelligence Agency, Frederick, Md.: University Publications of America, 1981 pg 29

[19] Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler, The Secret Wartime Report, Basic Books Inc., New York, London (1972) Forward ( by William L. Langer) v-vi, 3-8

[20] Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler, The Secret Wartime Report, Basic Books Inc., New York, London (1972) Forward ( by William L. Langer) v-vi, 3-8

[21] Harry Rositzke, The CIA's Secret Operations Espionage, Counterespionage and Covert Action, Imperial Book, Sound & Gift Company (tel:5917633), Lin Kou Book(tel:5511565), Sound & Gift Company, PO Box 3751 Taipei, 1977, pgs 221-222

[22] Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler, The Secret Wartime Report, Basic Books Inc., New York, London (1972) Forward ( by William L. Langer) v-vi; The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg 24 Shuster & Langer were members of Council on Foreign Relations PEACE AIMS GROUP -- the other members of this group included: Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Philip E. Mosely, Mose L. Harvey, Dwight E. Lee, Jay Allen, Frank Altschul, Percy W. Bidwell, Crane Brinton, Allen W. Dulles, Frank D. Graham, John Gunther, Bruce C. Hopper, Tracy B. Kittredge, William L Langer, James G McDonald, Philip E. Mosely, Winfield W. Riefler, Lindsay Roger, Whitney H. Shepardson, William L. Shirer, George N. Shuster, Oscar C. Stine, Arthur Sweetser, Max W. Thornburg, Jacob Viner, John K. Wright. POLITICAL GROUP Whitney H. Shepardson, Henry M. Wriston, Carter Goodrich, Walter Langsam, Walter R. Sharp, Frank Altschul, Hamilton Fish Armstrong, James P. Baxter, Charles W. Cole, John Foster Dulles, Maj. George Fielding Eliot, Thomas K. Finletter, Carger Goodrich, William L. Langer, Owen Lattimore, Dwight E. Lee, Francis P. Miller, Philip E. Mosely, Lindsay Rogers, Nicholas Roosevelt, David N. Rowe, James T. Shotwell, Arthur Sweetser, Payson W. Wild, Henry M. Wriston. pg 22; Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Annotated, Editorial Sponsors John Chamberlain, Sidney B. Fay, John Gunther, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Graham Hutton, Alvin Johnson, William L. Langer ( OSS - Research and Analysis Branch Chief ), Walter Millis, and Raoul de Roussy de Sales, George N. Shuster (CFR - Army Intelligence - CFR War and Peace Studies ), Reynal & Hitchcock, New York (1940), Introduction pg ix

[23] Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement Ten, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1981, pg. 432

[24] Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement Ten, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1981, pg. 432

[25] Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement One, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1981, pg. 734-736

[26] Dictionary of American Biography, Supplement One, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1981, pg. 734-736

[27] Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Annotated, Editorial Sponsors John Chamberlain, Sidney B. Fay, John Gunther, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Graham Hutton, Alvin Johnson, William L. Langer ( OSS - Research and Analysis Branch Chief ), Walter Millis, and Raoul de Roussy de Sales, George N. Shuster (CFR - Army Intelligence - CFR War and Peace Studies ), Reynal & Hitchcock, New York (1940), pg 994 Conclusion

[28] Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, Annotated, Editorial Sponsors John Chamberlain, Sidney B. Fay, John Gunther, Carlton J. H. Hayes, Graham Hutton, Alvin Johnson, William L. Langer ( OSS - Research and Analysis Branch Chief ), Walter Millis, and Raoul de Roussy de Sales, George N. Shuster (CFR - Army Intelligence - CFR War and Peace Studies ), Reynal & Hitchcock, New York (1940), pg 994 Conclusion

[29] The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pgs 7-9

[30] Langer, Walter C. The Mind of Adolf Hitler, The Secret Wartime Report, Basic Books Inc., New York, London (1972) Forward ( by William L. Langer) v-vi, 3-8

[31] Warburg, Paul, Harcourt, Brace and Co., NY 1946 pg 15-16

[32] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 32-34, 30-31; he War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 24; Quigley, Carroll, Tragedy and Hope, Macmillan, New York 1966, p. 953

[33] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 32-34, 30-31; he War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 24; Quigley, Carroll, Tragedy and Hope, Macmillan, New York 1966, p. 953

[34] Hadley Cantril, The Human Dimension: Experiences in Policy Research, Rutgers The State University, 1967 pg 32-34, 30, 33-34

 

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