Coronavirus research

Chloroquine phosphate (Klorokiini, Heliopar in Finland)
Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies.

Expert consensus on chloroquine phosphate for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia.

Chloroquine Is a Zinc Ionophore

Coronavirus Epidemic Update 34: US Cases Surge, Chloroquine & Zinc Treatment Combo, Italy Lockdown

(Bits about Chloroquine and Quercitin) Coronavirus Pandemic Update 35: New Outbreaks & Travel Restrictions, Possible COVID-19 Treatments

Nutraceuticals have potential for boosting the type 1 interferon response to RNA viruses including influenza and coronavirus

Shanghai Medical Association: Expert consensus on comprehensive treatment of coronavirus disease in Shanghai 2019
(translation:(Google Translate)

The effectiveness of vitamin C in preventing and relieving the symptoms of virus-induced respiratory infections.
"RESULTS: Overall, reported flu and cold symptoms in the test group decreased 85% compared with the control group after the administration of megadose Vitamin C.
CONCLUSION: Vitamin C in megadoses administered before or after the appearance of cold and flu symptoms relieved and prevented the symptoms in the test population compared with the control group."

Vitamin C for Sepsis and Severe ARDS

Sepsis Treatment & Vitamin C - Trials & Updates (Septic Shock)

PulmCrit- CITRIS-ALI: Can a secondary endpoint stage a coup d’état?
"But it’s not that simple. Patients in the Vitamin C group had a lower mortality. This difference is most striking during the first 96 hours while on IV vitamin C (during which mortality was ~23% in the placebo group vs. ~4% in the vitamin C group)"

Lipinski 2015, Ebola and Selenium: How not to catch the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)


Beta-glucan attenuates inflammatory cytokine release and prevents acute lung injury in an experimental model of sepsis

1,3‑β‑Glucan affects the balance of Th1/Th2 cytokines by promoting secretion of anti‑inflammatory cytokines in vitro

Antiinflammatory and Immunomodulating Properties of Fungal Metabolites
Summary: A clinically proven drug known to block an enzyme essential for the viral entry of Coronavirus into the lungs blocks the COVID 19 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The drug, Camostat mesilate, is a drug approved in Japan to treat pancreatic inflammation. Results suggest this drug may also protect against COVID 19. Researchers call for further clinical trials.

Ammonium chloride inhibits SARS-CoV infection of Vero E6 cells

Since chloroquine inhibited SARS-CoV infection when added before or after infection, we hypothesized that another common lysosomotropic agent, NH4Cl, might also function in a similar manner. Ammonium chloride has been widely used in studies addressing endosome-mediated virus entry.


(Bits about Chloroquine and Quercitin) Coronavirus Pandemic Update 35: New Outbreaks & Travel Restrictions, Possible COVID-19 Treatments


Because of its size and flexibility, certain humic acids from particular soil deposits turn out to be potent, broad-spectrum antivirals. That is because humic acid contains many kinds of “functional groups” (specific groups of atoms) that can bind to a multitude of viruses. Research has shown certain humic acids to be effective in vitro against a wide range of viruses, including influenza, HSV, HIV, and others.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]

Focus: How exactly does humic acid bind to a virus?

RJL: Binding occurs through hydrogen bonding. Electropositive atoms attract electronegative atoms. These are the same forces that hold DNA together. What is remarkable is that humic acid, with its many kinds of functional groups, binds more strongly to viruses than do our own cells. Certain humic acids from certain soil deposits are essentially like a really, really sticky piece of Velcro. Viruses also have really sticky sites—that’s how they manage to bind to a host cell. When these two very sticky pieces of Velcro come together they bind together very strongly.

Focus: Can you explain what a virus does once it attaches to a cell receptor?

RJL: It essentially pokes a hole in the cell, and injects either its RNA or DNA–its genomic material–into the cell. At that point the virus has essentially spent itself, but the viral material inside the cell uses the cell’s machinery to create more viruses, which then leave the cell and go on to bind to and infect other cells.

Focus: What happens to a virus when it binds to humic acid instead of a cell surface?

RJL: Humic acid essentially neutralises a virus’s chemical “stickiness”. Doing so in turn prevents the virus from reproducing since it can no longer attach (“fuse”) to the surface of a host cell. The immune system can then begin to eliminate the virus (largely through the action of macrophages). Also, viruses don’t live forever: if not allowed to reproduce, influenza viruses, for example, die out in 36-48 hours.

Focus: What happens if viruses have already attached to your cells? Can humic acid help?

RJL: Humic acid binds so strongly to viruses that it can actually displace them from a cell surface. In vitro studies have shown, for example, that if you allow herpes simplex viruses to attach to host cells and then add humic acid to the solution, it will displace viruses from infected cell surfaces. That is, humic acid has a greater affinity for the virus than the virus does for the host cell. Thus, humic acid can actually displace a virus even after it has attached itself to the surface of a cell.[6]